4th Lesson: Definite & Indefinite Article II

Now, how's the exercises and games links in the previous entry??...Have you guys try it?I hope that you have had a rough idea, how definite and indefinite article works! okay? So now in this entry I will explain the use of definite as well as indefinite article. 

Alright, let us start with indefinite article. Shall we?

note: p.c.n = plural countable noun, s.c.n = singular countable noun, d.a = definite article, i.a = indefinite article

  1. Use a or an to introduce a singular count noun. There is or there are often begins a sentence or clause that introduces a noun with an indefinite article.
    Woman: did you see a little boy walk by here five minutes ago?
    Police officer: I’m not sure. What does he look like?
      Woman: he has brown hair, and there’s a big soccer ball on his sweatshirt
  2. Use some or Ø (no article) to introduce p.c.n or n.c.n.
    I need some batteries for my camera.
    I called for some information.
    I need Ø batteries for my camera.
    I called for Ø information.  
  3. When a speaker uses an indefinite article, the noun is not a specific thing in the mind of the listener. In the speaker’s mind, however, sometimes the noun is specific and sometimes it is not.

    Bob: I bought a new car. ( bob has a specific car in mind, but the listener doesn’t)
    Bob: I need a new car.(Neither bob nor the listener  have a specific car in mind) 
Definite article, 

  1. Use the to refer to a noun that both you and a listener can identify. This is possible when you and the listener share information about the noun.
  2. Use the d.a after a noun has already been introduced with an i.a.
    Introduced ( with i.a)
    I bought koji a sweater and a watch for his birthday.

    Mentioned again ( with d.a)
    The sweater doesn’t fit and the watch doesn’t work!  
  3. Use the d.a when you and a listener share general knowledge about sth in your environment.

    Noun of General Knowledge
    A: Oh no! The copy machine is broken again!
    B: I can’t believe it!
         (Both workers use a particular copy machine, so they know which one is broken Noun Identified in Sentence 
    Use the d.a when other information in the sentence identifies the noun.
    Turn off the light near the door (The phrase near the door tells which light)
    Please hand me the book about England.(The phrase about England tells which book)

    4. Use the d.a with certain nouns (store, doctor, hospital, movies, bank, park, TV, telephone) that are familiar to you and the listener.

    Familiar nouns.

    A: I’m going to the doctor this morning. Can I borrow your car?
    B: Sure.

    A: hello. I’m here to see Ms. Stephen.
    B: I’m sorry, she’s on the telephone. Would you like to wait and sit down?

    5. Use d.a for a noun that is unique (the only one of its type)

    Unique Noun

    The earth revolves around the sun.
    Tokyo is the capital Japan.

     So, that is all for today's lesson on i.a and d.a...=)


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